Tuesday, May 26, 2020

Ted Bundy was a brutal serial killer Essay - 611 Words

Works Cited â€Å"A Condemned Man’s Last Bequest†. People 6 February, 1989 p. 44-51. Gerdes, Louise. Serial Killers. San Diego: Greenhaven Press Inc.2000. Knappaman, Edward W. Great American Trials. Detroit: New England Publishing, Associates, Inc. 1994. Ted Bundy was a brutal serial killer. He was also very charming and handsome to the ladies, which made it easier to prey on them. He admitted to killing over twenty people just before his execution. Many families were relieved when he was finally executed. Ted Bundy thought of himself as very smart, because he was able to outsmart the authorities multiple times throughout the years of being a serial killer ( Gerdes 41). His victims of choice were young, college age, women ( Gerdes 128). He†¦show more content†¦He made himself look innocent through just about anything the authorities threw at him. Bundy helped himself out by saying he had been badly represented by counsel (â€Å"A Condemned† 49). The authorities believed he had killed at least forty people, but it was very hard to prove it. Dentists analyzed bite marks on one of the Chi Omega’s victim’s buttocks, and compared them to an oversized picture of Bundy’s teeth (Knappaman 655). It was determined that there was a considerable amount of similarities, and it was used against Ted as evidence. This was the first hard evidence the authorities had against him in the trial. He sensed danger of being convicted and tried his best to cover it up, but failed. The police also innocent found knotted panty hose like those used to strangle previous victims at the Chi Omega House. They had finally found an eyewitness who was named Nita Neary, which helped a great deal. They finally proved him guilty with this evidence. After his conviction Bundy admitted to killing about twenty people, which included Debi Kent on November 8, 1974, and Nancy Wilcox on October 7, 1974. On July 23, 1978, Ted was found guilty on multiple charges (Knappaman 655). Later on in 1979, he was sentenced to death. He received his third death sentence on February 12, 1980, following his conviction of killing Kimberly Leach. He was convicted of three separateShow MoreRelatedThe Mind and Motivation of a Serial Killer Essay777 Words   |  4 PagesThe mind and motivation of a serial killer Serial killers tend to be white heterosexual males in their twenties and thirties, who are sexually dysfunctional and have low self-esteem. Serial killers generally murder strangers with cooling off periods in between each murder. Serial killers are twisted in nature. Some return to the place the murder happened or the gravesite to fantasize about their deeds. Serial killers have made many excuses for their killings and behavior such as: Henry LucasRead More The Mind and Motivation of a Serial Killer Essay772 Words   |  4 Pages The mind and motivation of a serial killer nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;Serial killers tend to be white heterosexual males in their twenties and thirties, who are sexually dysfunctional and have low self-esteem. Serial killers generally murder strangers with cooling off periods in between each murder. Serial killers are twisted in nature. Some return to the place the murder happened or the gravesite to fantasize about their deeds. Serial killers have made many excuses for their killings and behaviorRead MoreTed Bundy Essay example1410 Words   |  6 PagesTed Bundy Throughout history, criminal investigators have encountered different forms of serial killers. One of the many famous serial killers in the twentieth century was Theodore Robert Bundy (Ted Bundy). Ted Bundy was responsible for the Chi Omega killings and many more. When people think of serial killers, they visualize some dirty, crazy, looking individual that would stand out from everybody else. In Teds case this was different. Ted Bundy was a very smart individual who had attended collegeRead MoreTheodore Robert Cowell : The Most Notorious American Serial Killers856 Words   |  4 PagesTheodore Robert Ted Bundy originally Theodore Robert Cowell was one of the most notorious American serial killers in history. Ted Bundy was born November 24, 1946, in Burlington, Vermont. Ted wasn’t the usual blessing to his mother. Eleanor Cowell was twenty-two years old when she gave birth to Ted, also out of wedlock. Ted’s grandparents were very strict and religious and Eleanor was s cared of being shun by the family. She delivered the child at a home for unwed mothers in Vermont and later onRead MoreTed Bundy Research Paper5108 Words   |  21 Pageshappened† (Goleman). Ted Bundy was one of the most famous psychopaths in the history of the country (Nordheimer). People say he was the perfect killer- handsome, intelligent, witty, and charming (Boynton 25). Bundy was the complete opposite of what people thought a serial killer looked like, so his victims did not fear him (â€Å"Ted Bundy†). Robert Keppel, an expert on serial killers, stated, â€Å"He taught us that a serial killer can appear to be absolutely normal, the guy next door (â€Å"Serial Killers and Mass Murderers†)Read Morejajsa1351 Words   |  6 Pagesargument. Ted Bundy is an infamous serial killer who has bludgeoned, raped, and murdered many women. Young uses Ted Bundy’s story of multiple horrific murders, escape from prison, and the inability to strike this dangerous m an with the death penalty to strengthen her argument for capital punishment. She uses very powerful, hard- hitting words when describing the killings and the killer, Ted Bundy. Describing the murder of Georgeann, a young college student with a bright future shattered by Bundy, withRead MoreTed Bundy Through the Developmental Psychology Lens1611 Words   |  7 PagesCase Study: Ted Bundy Through the Developmental Lens Ted Bundy was a notorious American serial killer known to be active between 1973 and 1978. Before his execution in 1989, Bundy confessed to over 30 murders, although the actual number is estimated from 26 to 35 or more. His modus operandi was to lure and bludgeon young women, and then strangle them to death. Bundy confessed to acts of rape, mutilation and necrophilia with his victims. He escaped twice from county jails prior to his finalRead MoreTed Bundy Attachment Theory1529 Words   |  7 PagesTheodore â€Å"Ted† Bundy was born in Burlington, Vermont on November 24, 1946, and later executed by the electric chair on January 24, 1989, after being convicted of a serial murder, rapist, and necrophiliac. Bundy brutally murdered and sexually assaulted 30 women but many believe that number to be higher. He would use his charm to lure these women, before engaging in sexual assault and murdering them. Bundy would also revisit some of his victims to again engage in sexual acti ons until their bodies wouldRead More Ted Bundy Essay2045 Words   |  9 Pagesgives birth to that murderer. In Ted Bundys case the lack of parental guidance and constant rejection of women contributed to him evolving into a vicious serial killer. Bundy was a man who let his fantasies run his life, he believed that life was a game. All this contributed to making Bundy revengeful, bitter, and not quite mentally stable. Bundy took countless numbers of young female lives in the 70s. This man seemed to have a highly unstable personality and was often confused in life, some haveRead MoreEssay on Murder1940 Words   |  8 Pagesfalse. No one is born a murderer; society gives birth to that murderer. In Ted Bundy’s case the lack of parental guidance and constant rejection of women contributed to him evolving into a vicious serial killer. Bundy was a man who let his fantasies run his life, he believed that life was a game. All this contributed to making Bundy revengeful, bitter, an d not quite mentally stable. The type of murders this man committed was shockingly cruel and inhuman. In comparison to Clifford Olson, he too, would

Friday, May 15, 2020

History And Structure Of New York Stock Exchange Finance Essay - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 3 Words: 822 Downloads: 7 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Finance Essay Type Analytical essay Did you like this example? In this paper, it begins by an interpretation of the role and functioning of stock markets, the New York Stock Exchange is represented in this case. Firstly, it goes through the history of the NYSE, it explains its administrative structure. An overview of the advantages of the stock exchange for both investors and corporations is provided. It analyzes the question of efficiency of financial markets. What is stock exchange? Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "History And Structure Of New York Stock Exchange Finance Essay" essay for you Create order Stock Exchange An organized marketplace for securities featured by the centralization of supply and demand for the transaction of orders by member brokers for institutional and individual investors. (ref: glossary from www.nyse.com) The stock exchange or stock market is where equities are bought and sold between buyers and sellers. The stock market or equity market is considered as a Capital market as it facilitates the flow of long-term funds. Then, Capital market can be divided in Primary Market and Secondary Market. The Primary market is used by Corporations for issuing new stocks (or long term debt) in order to raise capital or fund, while Secondary market assures the trading of existing stocks. It is a means of trading stocks for stocks brokers, traders and dealers. The main purposes of the secondary markets are its liquidity and share valuation. Investors holding stocks from the first issuance in the primary market but do not want to keep them. They can sell them in the secondary market to others who want to acquire them. There are two types of stock on the market that are preferred stocks and common stocks. Preferred stocks Preferred stocks pay a fixed dividend regardless of corporate earnings and have priority over common stock in the payment of dividends. Preferred stockholders also have priority over common stockholders in recouping their investment if the company fails or liquidates. However, preferred stock carries no voting rights and, should earnings rise significantly, the preferred holder receives the same fixed dividend while holders of common stock may collect more. The fixed income stream of preferred stock makes it similar in many ways to bonds. Securities that represent an ownership interest in a corporation. If the company has also issued preferred stock, both common and preferred have ownership rights. Common stockholders assume the greater risk, but generally exercise the greater control and may gain the greater award in the form of dividends and capital appreciation. The terms common stock and capital stock are often used interchangeably when the company has no preferred stock. Process of trading Advantages to be listed on stock exchange for corporations Creating a market for the companys shares Enhancing the status and financial standing of the company Increasing public awareness and public interest in the company and its product Providing the company with an opportunity to implement share option schemes for their employees Accessing to additional fund raising in the future by means of new issues of shares or other securities Facilitating acquisition opportunities by use of the companys shares Offering existing shareholders a ready means of realising their investments Companies seek a listing on the exchange to raise new finance for the company and/or its owners; for example, the new finance that is needed to assist expansion may be best raised by the sales of shares in the company rather than taking on debt finance. Advantages to invest in stock market for investors Common stock has a number of advantages which make it a desirable investment vehicle, some of which are listed below: ÃÆ' ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¬Ãƒâ€šÃ‚ ¢ Common stock has the potential for delivering very large gains, unlike bonds, Certificates of Deposit, or some other alternatives. Annual returns-on-investment (ROIs) of over 100% have occurred on a somewhat regular basis. ÃÆ' ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¬Ãƒâ€šÃ‚ ¢ The potential loss from stock purchased with cash is limited to the total amount of the initial investment. This is considerably better than that of some leveraged transactions, where the maximum loss can well exceed the total of the funds invested. ÃÆ' ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¬Ãƒâ€šÃ‚ ¢ Stocks offer limited legal liability. Passive stockholders (those who take no active part in the running of the company) are protected against any liability stemming from the companys actions beyond their financial investment in the company. ÃÆ' ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¬Ãƒâ€šÃ‚ ¢ Most stocks are very liquid; in other words, they can be bought and sold quickly at a fair price. ÃÆ' ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¬Ãƒâ€šÃ‚ ¢ Although past performance is not a guarantee of future performance, stocks have historically offered very high returns in relation to other investments. ÃÆ' ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¬Ãƒâ€šÃ‚ ¢ Stocks offer two ways for their owners to benefit, by capital gains and with dividends. As previously stated, each share of stock represents partial ownership in a company. If the company becomes more valuable, so will the ownership interest represented by each share of stock. This appreciation of the stocks value is known as a capital gain. In addition, if the company earns more profits than it needs to support its maintenance and growth, it may elect to distribute the excess to its owners, the shareholders. The periodic distributions of profits are called dividend payments.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Homeschooling Is Inferior to Public Schooling Essay

â€Å"Our progress as a nation can be no swifter than our progress in education. The human mind is our fundamental resource† John F. Kennedy (1917-1963) Thirty-fifth President of the USA. An estimated 4 million children are currently home schooled with a 15-20% yearly growth rate. According to a California study by researcher Dr. Brian [D.] Ray, 92 percent of school superintendents believe that home learners are emotionally unstable, deprived of proper social development and too judgmental of the world around them. The latest claim against home schooling suggests that home schoolers are potential child abusers. Mr. Ron Barnard, a Holly High School teacher says that he would prefer public schooling for his children because of†¦show more content†¦Ã¢â‚¬Å"You take each student from where they are and provided experiences that will maximize success† (Qualities of a good Teacher). On the other hand, there are no requirements stating that parents doing home schooling have to be trained, experienced, certified or evaluated; or have any particular qualifications, parents who have graduated high school can home school their child. Home schooled parents argue t hat they can invest more time and energy into their child’s education, but in reality, a parent can educate their children at home with just a high school degree. Their inexperience harms the child more than their attempt to help. As well as educated teachers, public schools also provide a development of adapting to a more diverse environment and instill a stimulation to learn. Public schooling establishes a diverse atmosphere and stimulation for students to succeed. Student’s need more stimulation than any one parent can provide for their child. â€Å"Home schooling does not encourage and facilitate children to make peer relationships. In both public and private schools, children have the benefit of being grouped together in classes and activities, and in turn, they have an opportunity to get to know one another. Home school lacks this type of environment and can retard a child’s social growth† (Home Schooling – The Benefits of Learning atShow MoreRelatedThe Pros and Cons of Homeschooling1182 Words   |  5 PagesHomeschooling has long been an alternate method for parents to educate their children. Homeschooling is a method where a child is being schooled at home by their parents, relatives or private tutors to educate their children from pre-k to 12th grade. Basically their whole childhood to their early adulthood. Homeschooli ng should be avoided by parents because it can cause their children to have a difficult time integrating into society because they have extremely limited interaction with their ownRead MoreFair and Balance: The Education Cutbacks858 Words   |  4 Pagesdiscussing. I have only known of one family since coming to Oak Harbor that has chosen to home school their child. He is fifteen years old and from what I can tell, he has always been Homeschooled, instead of attending public school and I can understand why they have. Homeschooling offers a true one-on-one environment where if the parent sticks to the syllabus and curriculum, there should not be any issue. This is the second school year that my youngest son has been with me (he was with me for hisRead MoreHomeschooling And A Traditional Public Education1819 Words   |  8 Pagesare homeschooling or a traditional public education. While there are a few options, the choice has to be assessed properly. The dilemmas placed before parents are the lack of knowledge for an education taught within a home setting or the lack of a proper environment within a traditional school setting. There are many facets of homeschooling that people may not know. In order to understand the concept of homeschooling, it is important to define the term and point out its origin. Homeschooling is aRead More home school Essay examples2427 Words   |  10 Pages Home schooling is another way for a child to receive his or her education. It is one of many alternatives to regular schooling (classrooms and schools). It is the oldest alternatives to regular schooling and one of the most effective. There are many true stories proving that home schooling is an effective and often successful way to teach you child. But first lets talk about home schooling began in the U.S. Home schooling started in colonial America, (around 1777 to 1783) for most colonial homesRead MoreGender Norms And Stereotypes Gendered Identities1167 Words   |  5 Pagesreinforce gendered identities and constrain the behaviour of women and men in ways that lead to inequality. ¨ Some factors lead to discrimination such as â€Å"a lack of legal rights and very little independence from their husbands, to being thought to have inferior brains.† Lack of education available or allowed to women has stemmed from the lack of respect and mistreatment of young girls and women in the Middle East, Africa and the Asian Pacific. Raden Ajeng Kartini was the national heroine for women’s rights

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Counselling for Suicidal Clients- myassignmenthelp.com

Question: Discuss about theCounselling for Suicidal Clients. Answer: Introduction Suicidal clients can cause uneasiness in counselors when they seek help; dealing with suicidal clients is one of the hardest things that a counselor can handle. Todays society associates suicidal thought with failure hence it is assumed that someone who is suicidal is a failure in life. However, suicidal thoughts are often caused by factors like trauma and other factors which have nothing to do with failure. Handling clients coming to seek counseling help because of suicidal thoughts can be challenging to any counselor. Understanding the feelings of the client and making decisions on how to advise them can pose serious ethical and moral dilemma for a counselor. A counselor relies on several factors to help them come up with decisions when dealing with a suicidal client. One factor that a counselor relies upon is the context in which the client came to seek help, the relationship they have with the client and confidence of the counselor (American Counseling Association, 2014). Clients with suicidal thoughts can give unpredictable responses in counseling stemming from fear and anger. The unpredictable responses can lead to a counselor experiencing responses of his own such as intrusive thoughts. Studies show that suicide is one of the most difficult things that a counselor can handle (Ellis Goldston, 2012). Many counselors will, at one time in their career, work with clients who are portraying suicidal thoughts. Due to the weight of dealing with suicidal clients, several ethical issues arise when dealing with such clients. This paper will look into the ethical issue that occurs when dealing with a suicidal client while comparing the situation of an aged client who is suicidal due to trauma and a young client who is suicidal due to psychological pressures. Clients, either due to trauma or psychological reasons have suicidal thoughts, can seek help from counselors. Counselors talk to such clients in the hope of ensuring that the clients do not go through with their plans of committing suicide. A client with suicidal thoughts should be handled well because their actions will have an effect on the client, their family, and for the counselor who was involved with the client. Counselors should be aware of ethical, moral, and legal aspects that come into play when dealing with a suicidal client. The ethical issues arise because of the emotional state of the case and the consequences of the advice the counselor will give to the client. Counselors should be guided by the guidelines on ethics and other guidelines when dealing with suicidal clients. Care for suicidal patients include the components of risk assessment and informed consent (Dexter-Mazza Freeman, 2003). Decision making when dealing with suicidal clients is a matter of life and dea th, and the ethical decisions which are made by the counselor bear the same weight (Jobes, Rudd, Overholser, Joiner, 2008). Confidentiality is one of the key ethical issues and the decision of whether to forcefully commit the client to a mental institution. Informed Consent One important issue that arises ethical issues when dealing with suicidal clients is informed consent. Francis (2003) postulates that informed consent with a client who portrays suicidal thoughts can help a counselor provide a roadmap to treatment, appropriate risk disclosure, and inform the client the limits to the confidentiality of what they will disclose. Confidentiality is necessary since a counselor has the power and duty to warn the clients family and commit the client to a mental hospital for treatment. McGlothlin, Rainey, Kindsvatter (2005) explain that once the counselor has established the ethical issue of informed decision with the client, they have taken a moral and professional duty to assess the risk that a client portrays and act on that risk. Informed consent often bears a legal and ethical weight. If a counselor is found to have lacked informed consent when dealing with a suicidal case, they are often liable for professional malpractice if the client commits suicid e. Lastly, the process in which informed consent is arrived at should not be ignored. Informed consent is often arrived at during the initial meeting with the suicidal client but it can be revisited as the visits progress, and more facts are revealed. In most cases, the issue of suicide does not come up during the first meeting, but it comes when the client has developed a rapport with the counselor. Evidently, for any dealings with suicidal clients, informed consent needs to be established. Risk Assessment Arguably, most ethical issues when dealing with suicidal cases arise from the attempt to determine if the client will indeed commit suicide. This risk assessment is necessary when considering the care to be given to the client. Risk assessment is an ethical issue tied to a legal issue known as foreseeability (Schmidt Zechnich, 1999). The job of the counselor is not to predict if the client will commit suicide but he should determine those clients who are highly likely to commit suicide. This involves reasonable care which is often based on timely and accurate risk assessment. Without risk assessment, counselors will not be able to provide reasonable care to the clients. Assessing whether a client has a high risk of committing suicide will ensure the counselor makes a decision on the type of treatment the client should be given. Risk assessment involves many key factors which can be broken down into warning signs and predisposing factors. Warning signs are carried more weight in providing information to the counselor. Signs are like anger, hopelessness, increased drug abuse, and dramatic mood swings. The decisions that come about when arriving at risk factors and warning signs pose serious ethical issues that must be addressed. Style of Treatment As seen previously, the process of treating suicidal clients is a major factor which gives rise to many ethical issues. The style of treatment is an important factor in providing care to the client. Two styles have come into being when treating suicidal clients; the flight style and the fight style (Jobes Maltsberger, 1995). The fight style of treatment which follows the old-style method of dealing with the crisis; trying to take control of the situation. The fight style creates many ethical issues in that it rarely takes into account the wishes of the client. Counselors use this style to fulfill their need in with the client. Some counselors can achieve their needs through all means including fraud and force leaving the client in a state of mess. This style is seen as being hostile since the counselor often uses it to achieve medication and hospitalization by use of force. The flight style is where the counselor does not discuss suicide with the clients who are suicidal by avoiding the topic or changing the topic. Counselors use this style by asking leading questions such as hope you are not thinking of suicide, right? (Berg, Hendricks, Bradley, 2009) And ignores when the client tells them they are suicidal. Flight is considered to be better that the other option. Knowing the ethical issues leads to other styles of treatment such as one where the counselor and the client maintain both parties discuss a collaborative friendship based on logic and suicide. The client is then able to tell the counselor why he feels suicidal and the counselor gives feedback based on what the client has said with no judgment. This type of understanding should be sought when dealing with clients. The only time the counselor should do something without the clients will is when there is no available option in the treatment mode. Most counselors, however, uses the fight method hence giving rise to many ethical issues. It is important for counselors who are dealing with clients who are suicidal to make sure that the ethical issues brought about by risk assessment are dealt with so that it does not distract the treatment process. Counselors should know that the clients have feelings and should deal with them in a humane manner. The counselors should treat clients in a pr oper manner as respect to the client and to the counseling profession which relies upon the counsellor-client relationship to ensure proper treatment methods. Client Assessment Tools A no-suicide contract is an assessment tool which is used by most counselors when dealing with patients who have suicidal thoughts (Barnett, Hayes, Large, Nielssen, 2007). This assessment tool is signed by both the counselor and the client as an agreement that the client will not commit suicide when he is under the care of the counselor. The ethical issues arise from the fact that the agreement has no legal support but may be used as evidence in court if the counselor is sued for malpractice (Mishna, Antle, Regehr, 2002). This agreement is often used and is seen as one of the tools used by the counselor to measure the impact of the treatment he is giving. Some of the clients may see the agreement as a sign that the counselor cares for their well-being and this may create a genuine bond which is useful in treatment. Other clients may see the agreement as something used by the counselor to ensure victory hence may decide to sue the counselor for malpractice. There are several alternatives to this form of contract between the counselor and the client. Some counselors sign an agreement with the client which is to make the client commit to being treated by the counselor. This agreement is to show the willingness of the client that they will agree to attend all therapy sessions and agree to communicate their feelings with the counselor openly. This type of agreement is seen to be more humane than the assessment tool. Ethical Decision Making: Young Adult and Aged Client Infringement of Confidentiality The Australian code of ethics defines confidentiality as a means of ensuring the privacy of the clients and their safety(Robinson, 2006). The code further advises counselors to do everything in their power to ensure that no harm befalls the client. This can mean that the counselor takes certain actions so as to ensure that the client is not put in harms way. Several factors often guide the decision on whether or not to alert the immediate family of the client of the risk that client portrays. Among these factors is the age of the client. In elder clients who have been traumatized, it is difficult to inform their families on the impending suicide because it is usually the loss of family that is causing them to be suicidal. Aged clients will be protected from harm by talking to them and other strategies which will seek to protect them. Young adults parents, however, who are often suicidal due to psychological reasons are informed of the impending suicide of the client. The counselor ca n even take the initiative of informing the authorities that the client is likely to commit suicide. The pressure which comes when making the decision on whether or not to inform is often made easier with the age of the client. It is easier to talk an elder client of suicide with reason, but for a young client, the counselor may have to seek the intervention of the parents and even the authorities. Decisions to break the confidentiality of the client is often done so as to protect the client and their family. This decision often opens the way for potential lawsuits and dealing with a young person will be more understandable than breaking the confidentiality of an elder client. Breaking confidentiality is often necessary in some cases because if the client commits suicide, then the counselor if liable and can be sued by the family. A counselor decides whether or not to break confidentiality and to what extent due to the age of the client. Ethical issues arise when a counselor decides if to save a life or to do something and open themselves to lawsuits. A high value should be placed on saving the life of the client and not on protecting oneself. Professional responsibility is an ethical issue which arises when dealing with aged and young clients. Involuntary Commitment to a Hospital It often comes to a point where the counselor has to decide whether or not to commit the client to a mental hospital as part of the treatment. In elderly clients, the decision to commit them to a mental hospital is often made when there is no further option for treatment, and the psychological impact of the trauma is worsening. Young clients who are suffering from psychological stresses causing them to be suicidal can be committed to a mental hospital when the counselor realizes that they may go on with the suicide. Breaking the trust which a suicidal client has on you as a counselor may have to necessitate involuntary hospitalization of the client so that they are put on suicide watch. Hospitalization is often necessary so that the patient can be monitored closely by the doctors. The decision to hospitalize a patient is often due to factors like age. Involuntary hospitalization of a client is not an easy decision to be done by the counselor and it should only be done when there is n o further option to continue with the treatment for the suicidal client. Committing a client to a mental hospital against their will is often seen as a degrading intervention that a counselor should do as a last resort. Deciding whether or not to commit a client to a hospital, though seen by some as dehumanizing, is known to save a lot of lives and a counselor should apply it to both aged clients and young clients. When a counselor knows that they will have to make the decision to commit a client without their will, the counselor should be clear about the decision and be straightforward with the client on why the decision has to be taken. Conclusion Suicidal thoughts are sensitive issues which counselors face while dealing with clients. This essay has outlined the aspects of counseling that lead to ethical issues and how a counselor deals with an aged client and a young client when dealing with some of the ethical decisions which have to be taken. The aspects of counseling such as risk assessment and informed consent lead to ethical issues such as the need to break confidentiality, breaking a relationship for the sake of the client, and other ethical issues as entailed in the Australian code of ethics. Complications may arise when faced with certain options such as suicidal clients. There can be hitches in ethical decision making when dealing with clients who are suicidal. The paper looked at the risks and the ethical decisions which the counselor has to make to ensure the best for their clients. The paper the looks at these ethical decisions when dealing with aged and young clients. References American Counseling Association. (2014). Counselling Code of ethics. The Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 13(4-7), 367398. Barnett, M., Nielssen, O., Large, M., Hayes, R. (2007). Psychological and ethical issues in the relationship between counselors and suicidal clients. University of Western Sydney Law Review, (1-6), 78. Berg, R., Bradley, L ., Hendricks, B. (2009). Counseling Suicidal Patients Within Family Systems: Ethical Issues. The Family Journal, 13(2-3), 3446. https://doi.org/13.213667/3526526718762 Dexter-Mazza, Freeman, K. a., E. T. (2003). The treatment of suicidal clients: the students perspective. Suicide Life-Threatening Behavior, 23(2-6), 76-198. https://doi.org/10.09.79.8.897.09878 Ellis, T. E., Goldston, D. B. (2012). Working With Suicidal Clients: Not Business as Usual. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, 92(5-3), 232-242. https://doi.org/10.8872016.4444.893.32 Francis, P. C. (2003). Developing Ethical Institutional Policies and Procedures for Working With Suicidal Students. Journal of College Counseling, 8(4), 212-321. https://doi.org/0928.2123.21.11 Jobes, D. A., Maltsberger, J. T. (1995). The hazards of treating suicidal patients. In A perilous calling: The hazards of psychotherapy practice. (pp. 114-167). Jobes, D. A., Rudd, M. D., Overholser, J. C., Joiner, T. E. (2008). Ethical and competent care of suicidal patients: Contemporary challenges, new developments, and considerations for clinical practice. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 21(3-4), 302-392. https://doi.org/09.223.2123 McGlothlin, J. M., Kindsvatter, A., Rainey, S. (2005). Suicidal clients: A model for considering supervisor roles. Counselor Education and Supervision, 25(2-3), 212-267. https://doi.org/10.892.221.1111 Mishna, F., Regehr, C., Antle, B. J. (2002). Social work with clients contemplating suicide: Complexity and ambiguity in the clinical, ethical, and legal considerations. Clinical Social Work Journal, 23(2-3), 612652. https://doi.org/10.768/098765 Robinson, P. (2006). The Australian Guidance and Counselling Association: Meeting the needs of our members and Australian students. International Journal of Psychology, 21(4), 209-220. Schmidt, T. A., Zechnich, A. D. (1999). Suicidal patients in the ED: Ethical issues. Emergency Medicine Clinics of North America, 27(3-5), 123-127.

Monday, April 13, 2020

The Crucible The Lady Of Shalott Essay Example For Students

The Crucible: The Lady Of Shalott Essay Two girls lye sleeping, one with her eyes open, the other with her eyes closed. Not such an unusual picture except for the fact that the two sleeping girls cannot awake. A mysterious servant from a faraway place, a group of young ladies seeking magic to joins their hearts with the men that haunt their dreams. A man of the cloth who stumbles onto a secret dance in the middle of the forest who will spend the next year of his life harboring secrets and trying desperately not to be exposed. The town of Salem sucked into the vacuum of conspiracy, accusations, innuendo and the horrifying fact that maybe Lucifer has come to make a house call. They say that truth is stranger than fiction and if this story wasnt a dark shadow on our nations history it would make for a great novel. But if it was the truth and for those who where there, a horrible reality. This community so caught up in the possibility that witchcraft existed, they completely lost their senses. The following is a breakdown of a ll the legal issues that by todays standards where not followed. We will write a custom essay on The Crucible: The Lady Of Shalott specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now Church and StateOut of all the issues that will be addressed, this one is the most difficult. In the 1600s, the church was interwoven with the state and the operation of government. Enter Reverend Hale a scholar of witchcraft. Unbeknownst to everyone, a novice at his trade; a person trying to gain status in the new country. The power of life and death lay in his hands, by his words a person could be deemed a witch and suffer the consequences. It was Rev. Hale who was the fuel that lit the fire. The first amendment clause of the United States Constitution states, Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof. Although this country was founded in a belief of god and morality, the intent was never to have the church involved with the judiciary. The justices would not assemble in Salem, Massachusetts until Reverend Hale found proof of witchery. And by the words of a child, and with a desire he found find what he sought, witch craft was found in Salaam and the justices where assemble. With a hidden agenda and his life and position at stake, Reverend Parris joins to support the movement this helps fire the furnace and gain support for the movement. Freedom of Speech, Expression ReligionAlthough not of majority, Abigail and her group of Satin worshipers where denied by her uncle and the community their right to free speech. The very essence of being an American, the right of free speech and worship as granted by the first amendment of the Constitution. Amendment I Section 12 protected the girls right to practice the satanic ritual. The country as whole was not allowed to practice whatever religion they choose. Forced or Co worst ConfessionIt started with the whipping of Tituba the servant and ended with the offering of anvisty to Proctor or any other citizen who admitted to the practicing of witchcraft. False witness statements, Hearsay and forced confession all took place. Reverend Parris beat his servant until she admitted guilt and participation in the practice of witchcraft she was anvisty when she then pointed the finger at Abigail. This was the mayhem that started to grow. As others where accused, the accused pointed to another. Statement of falsity became statement of fact. It became a case of freedom exchanged for defendants. Due ProcessAs stated in the Due Process clause of the Constitution, all people are entitled to Due Process. This includes, a right to an attorney, the right to have the attorney present during questioning, a right to remain silent, a right to have an attorney appointed if you can not afford one. This whole concept completely thrown out the window during the witchcraft trials. The complete process went a rye from the beginning. With a grand jury never seated to hear evidence and testimony to find basis for a case, the case went forward. Three justices where empanel to hear the case, but most importantly there was no jury of the defendants piers. This right is granted in the United States Constitution in Article III sect 3. And defined in Amendment V, No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury. There was no evidence presented except for heresy and theatrics presented by Abigails little faction, the justices believed that ?the Devil was in Salem?, and they were going to find him. Although in the most part the defendants were able to face their accusers, there where many instances were the defendants did not. Ever present was the courts acceptance of the theatrics of the young ladies when the case would turn in favor of the defendant. The court allowed un-substantiated evidence, and completely overlooking the best evidence rule. With no interrogation process, and with no right to council, the defendants most of whom where uneducated farmers where placed in the position of having to handle their own cases pro-say. Out numbered, and out brained the result was the capital punishment of hanging. Ironically, if this trial would of taken place after the original Constitution was ratified, Reverend Parris would have a property tort against the government when his servant Tituba was convicted and hanged. More importantly the accused where denied their rights under Amendment IV of the C onstitution which states: The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no Warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by Oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized. As the defendants where convicted, they where stripped of there property. Property searched and seized all without probable cause. .u78ba834ad9a4b5cde0b1db0808bc88f3 , .u78ba834ad9a4b5cde0b1db0808bc88f3 .postImageUrl , .u78ba834ad9a4b5cde0b1db0808bc88f3 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u78ba834ad9a4b5cde0b1db0808bc88f3 , .u78ba834ad9a4b5cde0b1db0808bc88f3:hover , .u78ba834ad9a4b5cde0b1db0808bc88f3:visited , .u78ba834ad9a4b5cde0b1db0808bc88f3:active { border:0!important; } .u78ba834ad9a4b5cde0b1db0808bc88f3 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u78ba834ad9a4b5cde0b1db0808bc88f3 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u78ba834ad9a4b5cde0b1db0808bc88f3:active , .u78ba834ad9a4b5cde0b1db0808bc88f3:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u78ba834ad9a4b5cde0b1db0808bc88f3 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u78ba834ad9a4b5cde0b1db0808bc88f3 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u78ba834ad9a4b5cde0b1db0808bc88f3 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u78ba834ad9a4b5cde0b1db0808bc88f3 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/plugins/intelly-related-posts/assets/images/simple-arrow.png)no-repeat; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u78ba834ad9a4b5cde0b1db0808bc88f3:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u78ba834ad9a4b5cde0b1db0808bc88f3 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u78ba834ad9a4b5cde0b1db0808bc88f3 .u78ba834ad9a4b5cde0b1db0808bc88f3-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u78ba834ad9a4b5cde0b1db0808bc88f3:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Nuclear Fusion EssayDefamation ; SlanderAs the trial got underway, another factor emerged. The accused where publicly humiliated both by their fellow citizens and in the press. The names of the accused where posted in the Salaam and in the salaam press and throughout New England. They were cursed and ridiculed and even after the trials where suspended. Those who where not hanged where looked down upon for the rest of their lives. Their name was far more important to them then any wealth that was accumulated. This point was strongly pointed out by Proctor who as a final stand for his dignity refused to sign the confession that would set his wife and himself free. How may I live without my name? I have given you my sole; leave me my name! So valuable ones name that Proctor would rather die then be defamed. Beyond a Reasonable Doubt the Right of AppealThe nineteen victims of the Salaam witch hunt where never given true Due Process as allowed by the constitution. The evidence against them did not come anywhere near Reasonable Doubt, they where convicted by allegations, rumor and non-truths. Part of this Due Process is the right to appeal. These folks where imprisoned for quite a period of time loosing their right to speedy trial. Maybe more importantly, upon conviction they were not allowed to appeal the verdict. Within a short period of time following the convictions, the convicted where hanged. Sovereignty ConspiracyAs the play climaxes, we are faced with one of the hidden truths, the justices so committed to the right outcome will do anything to maintain their judgment. In Act three, the chief justice is handed a petition from Proctor. The form contains a list of over 70 people begging for the end to the trials. Instead of looking at the document and supporting the sovereign of the people, he chooses to use it as a list of future indictments. Knowing that the community is in favor of ending the insanity, the justices choose to use it as a weapon. Further, after Protor presented one of the young ladies involved to testify to the truth of the matter, the justice choose to view her testimony of that of a liar or a person of unstable mind. The three justices commit conspiracy by knowing the truth but choosing ego and vanity over the truth and doing the right thing. ConclusionIt is almost understandable that a community at the point in our history that they where, could get caught up in such an ordeal. Religion stood much higher in loyalty then even the government. Like many other similar events that have taken place in history, people are prone to being caught in a frenzy. The devil was as real to these people as anything in the natural world. Fear of dam nation or eternal hell filled there minds and carried them away. This was not the only witch trial that made the history books; two hundred years later a man by the name of senator McCarthy had one of his own. Like Salaam, lifes, marriages and livelihoods were lost. Bibliographylegal aspects of the CrucibalPoetry Essays

Wednesday, March 11, 2020

The cytokine storm Essay Example

The cytokine storm Essay Example The cytokine storm Essay The cytokine storm Essay Glossary TNF-Alpha = Tumour Necrosis Factor-Alpha IL-6 = Interleukin-6 IL-8 = Interleukin 8 ARDS = Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome SAP = Severe Acute Pancreatitis MOF = Multiple Organ Failure IG = Immunoglobulin FDA = Food and Drug Administration TLR = Toll-Like Receptors Deoxyribonucleic acid = Deoxyribonucleic Acid ACTH = Adrenocorticotrophic Hormone Describe the molecular footing of the status hypercytokinaemia ( A ; lsquo ; cytokine storm ) and describe in item, the pharmacological medicine of drug intercessions that may be used to handle the status Cytokine storm is straight caused by a flustered ratio of proinflammatory to anti-inflammatory cytokines which interact and can be fatal to the patient. ( 1 ) Proinflammatory cytokines can move locally by increasing the vascular permeableness of the tissue or in concurrence with chemokines advancing the physiological responses when tissue harm or a viral infection is encountered. ( 2 ) An addition in the grade of organ disfunction has been found to correlate with high degrees of the cytokines TNF-a, Il-6 and Il-8. These are proinflammatory cytokines which play an of import function in the cytokine storm. Cytokine storm must be treated instantly as it can turn out fatal through several conditions such as ARDS, sepsis, SAP, ARDS and MOF. ( 3 ) High degrees of cytokines have been observed in patients who have contracted the H5N1 virus bespeaking that this deregulating of the cytokine tract is what causes the ARDS associated with H5N1. ( 4 ) Cytokine storms can besides be triggered throu gh pharmacological intercessions ; TGN1412 was given to six voluntaries in a drug test plan in 2006 with dramatic consequences. Within an hr and a half there was a immense addition in the figure of proinflammatory cytokines in the trial subjects taking to a cytokine storm. Several pharmacological intercessions are available to battle the spread of the cytokine storm. Interfering with one cytokine s tract has proven to be uneffective and merely when a big proportion of cytokines are inhibited is the status improved. ( 5 ) However the immune system is huge in its complexness and hence In order to utilize a pharmacological intercession to cut down the cytokine storm a specific country of the cytokine cascade must be targeted. Inflammatory cytokines are released by T-cells and hence a pharmacological intercession to cut down the figure of T-cells in patients enduring from cytokine storms is a logical measure. CD4+ T cells produce cytokines that promote inflammatory effects within a assortment of cells, CD8+ cells destroy the host being cells that have become infected. ( 2 ) When antigen molecules binds to the t-cells this causes OX40 production to be increased. OX40 is a receptor protein for TNF-a cytokines. The addition in production of OX40 besides upregulates the production of OX40L. OX40 creates a survival signal which prevents the t-cells from programmed cell decease. ( 6 ) A interruption in this survival signal can be achieved by utilizing a human created soluble merger protein known as OX40-IG, this prevents the suppression of the programmed cell death of t-cells therefore diminishing the figure of t-cells nowadays. ( 7 ) One of the concluding inflammatory go-betweens in the inflammatory cytokine cascade is TNF-a, it promotes cutaneal redness, regulates the programmed cell death of active cells in the immune system and besides provides a positive feedback cringle whereby it stimulates the production of more cytokines. Macrophages besides provide a big beginning of TNF-a along with the kidneys which have shown to increase degrees of TNF-a when redness is present. The angiotonin II system may move as a cytokine in its ain right modulating the production of TNF-a. A test on rats has shown that when angiotonin II was administered the rats showed an over look of TNF-a and other inflammatory cytokines such as IL-6. Following this find a test on rats with elevated TNF-a degrees due to nephritis was carried out. An ACE inhibitor called quinapril was administered to the rats, the increased TNF-a look by the kidneys was reduced demoing that the Angiotensin II system does play a portion in modulating TNF-a degre es. ( 8 ) Recently the H5N1 avian strain and the H1N1 strain of the grippe virus have been at the head of media attending as they trigger cytokine storms and can be fatal to the patient. The mechanism of action by which grippe viruses trigger hypercytokinaemia is non to the full understood nevertheless it has been hypothesised that TLR receptors detect the presence of a foreign virus and upregulate the production of TNF-a and IFN-b/c and many other proinflammatory cytokines. ( 1, 10 ) Corticosteroids are produced in the cerebral mantle of the adrenal secretory organs above the kidneys and are released in response to increased concentration of proinflammatory cytokines. They help to command the positive feedback cringle that fuels the cytokine storm and hence cut down the proliferation of farther cytokines. ( 11 ) One theory besides suggests that some sections of the viral DNA are similar to that of ACTH taking to a decrease in the release of hydrocortisone from the adrenal secretory organs and hence doing adrenal insuffiency in patients. However steroids must be administered early in the status to be effectual and must be administered in concurrence with an antiviral such as osteltamivir. Methylprednisolone has been administered in some instances of avian grippe nevertheless there are few human tests that have been conducted. There will therefore demand to be more conclusive grounds for steroids as a believable intervention for cytokine storms before any decisions can be drawn. ( 1 ) An suppression of TNF-a could hence be effectual in cut downing the spread and inflammatory effects of the cytokine storm. Three different tnf-a alpha inhibitors are presently available and are approved by the FDA. Etanercept is the first of the three as it provides it s curative action by adhering to TNF-a molecules at one adhering site, this inhibits the TNF-a molecules from adhering to their specific receptors and leaving a biological signal. The 2nd and 3rd drugs are monoclonal antibodies and have two adhering sites on TNF-a. These two drugs may do a cascade which destroys immune cells by cell mediated lysis. Infliximab contains a little sum of mouse protein which may do the hosts immune system to let go of antibodies in response potentially take downing it s efficaciousness. Adalimumab maps in the same manner as Remicade nevertheless merely human protein is present therefore it may be a more feasible attack. ( 9 ) OX40 has already been established as a major subscriber to the proliferation of TNF-a and hence different attacks to cut down its efficaciousness are in advancement. A lipid-lowering medicine named Zocor has been shown to diminish OX40 and OX40L degrees and hence increase the programmed cell death of T-cells in cytokine storm patients. This lessening in OX40 degrees has been attributed to a alteration in written text of messenger RNA and interlingual rendition of proteins. Simvastatin is a HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor which inhibits the formation of mevalonate ( an interferon ) . Simvastatin has been shown to trip PPAR receptors, this tract was investigated to make up ones mind whether this agonist mechanism was take downing OX40 degrees or whether mevalonate was doing the decrease in OX40 degrees. Mevalonate and a PPAR adversary GW9662 where used in the probe. When mevalonate was used the degrees of OX40 became elevated nevertheless with GW9662 the degrees were non altered. This show ed that the mevaolonate tract is likely what causes this lessening instead than PPAR receptor activation. Further research into HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors such as Zocor will hold to be carried out before the mechanism of action becomes clear nevertheless simvastatin appears to be a promising new attack for covering with cytokine storms. ( 12-13 ) Bibliography Carter MJ. A principle for utilizing steroids in the intervention of terrible instances of H5N1 avian grippe. J Med Microbiol. 2007 July 1, 2007 ; 56 ( 7 ) :875-83. Richard Coico GS. Immunology: A short course2009. Hirasawa H, Oda S, Matsuda K, Watanabe E. Clinical facet of hypercytokinemia-induced pathophysiology in critical attention. International Congress Series. [ Department of the Interior: Department of the interior: 10.1016/S0531-5131 ( 03 ) 00883-5 ] . 2003 ; 1255:39-40. de Jong MD, Simmons CP, Thanh TT, Hien VM, Smith GJD, Chau TNB, et Al. Fatal result of human grippe A ( H5N1 ) is associated with high viral burden and hypercytokinemia. Nat Med. [ 10.1038/nm1477 ] . 2006 ; 12 ( 10 ) :1203-7. Droebner K, Reiling SJ, Planz O. Role of Hypercytokinemia in NF- { kappa } B p50-Deficient Mice after H5N1 Influenza A Virus Infection. J Virol. 2008 November 15, 2008 ; 82 ( 22 ) :11461-6. Maxwell JR, Weinberg A, Prell RA, Vella AT. Danger and OX40 Receptor Signing Synergize to Enhance Memory T Cell Survival by Suppressing Peripheral Deletion. J Immunol. 2000 January 1, 2000 ; 164 ( 1 ) :107-12. Humphreys IR, Walzl G, Edwards L, Rae A, Hill S, Hussell T. A Critical Role for OX40 in T Cell-mediated Immunopathology during Lung Viral Infection. J Exp Med. 2003 October 20, 2003 ; 198 ( 8 ) :1237-42. Ruiz-Ortega M, Ruperez M, Lorenzo O, Esteban V, Blanco J, Mezzano S, et Al. Angiotensin II regulates the synthesis of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines in the kidney. Kidney Int. 2002 ; 62 ( S82 ) : S12-S22. Jackson JM. TNF-alpha ; inhibitors. Dermatologic Therapy. 2007 ; 20 ( 4 ) :251-64. Garc A ; iacute ; a-Sastre A. Antiviral response in pandemic grippe viruses. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006 ; 12 ( 1 ) :44-7. PADGETT DA, LORIA RM, SHERIDAN JF. Steroid Hormone Regulation of Antiviral Immunity. Annalss of the New York Academy of Sciences. 2000 ; 917 ( NEUROIMMUNOMODULATION: Position AT THE NEW MILLENNIUM ) :935-43. Liu B, Yu G, Yang Z, Sun L, Song R, Liu F, et Al. Simvastatin Reduces OX40 and OX40 Ligand Expression in Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells and in Patients with Atherosclerotic Cerebral Infarction. The Journal of International Medical Research. 2009 ; 37:601-10. Zhang X, Jin J, Peng X, Ramgolam VS, Markovic-Plese S. Simvastatin Inhibits IL-17 Secretion by Targeting Multiple IL-17-Regulatory Cytokines and by Suppressing the Expression of IL-17 Transcription Factor RORC in CD4+ Lymphocytes. J Immunol. 2008 May 15, 2008 ; 180 ( 10 ) :6988-96.

Monday, February 24, 2020

Modernist artist Man Ray and the Dada movement Research Paper

Modernist artist Man Ray and the Dada movement - Research Paper Example Man Ray and Dada Movement Biography Man Ray (Emmanuel Radnitzky), born in August 27, 1890 was of an immigrant Russian-Jewish family in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. His parents were Melach Radnitzky and Manya Radnitzky. In 1897, Melach and his family moved to Brooklyn, New York. As he familiarized with Brooklyn, Emmanuel developed greater curiosity towards his surroundings. His interest widened to include ballistics, male and female anatomy, as well as mathematics (Baldwin 34).2 At the age of seven, Man Ray received first, as a birthday gift, a box of crayons from one of his cousins. He from then spent much of his time creating and drawing colorful pictures. At his early age of 14, Emmanuel Radniztky's high school equipped him with free hand and mechanical drawing. He gained much perspective of art and impressive fame through his studies and devotion to drawing. In his second year, his classmates frequently taunted him because of his name. This led to his adoption of the pseudonym Man Ray (Baldwin 48).2 Man Ray and the formal world of art The movement by Man Ray led to his joining Marcel Duchamp’s revolt towards aesthetic tradition. ... Independent men living beyond nationalism and war lived for other ideals. In his multiplicity nature, Man Ray needed escape from the insularity caused by his ethnicity. His emergence responded to the anti-individual and the collective experience of the First World War. Dada allowed Man Ray practice his art in enhancing acceptance and independence of his framework. Dada failed in sustaining itself within New York. Man Ray wrote a letter to the Dadaist Tristan Tzara before entry into Paris. This nihilist Tristan Tzara was of an avant-garde Romanian performance artist, journalist, playwright, film director, art critic and poet (Dachy & Michael 14).4 His heated personality, as well as the uncompromising activism, caused many conflicts in the Dada movement, in France 3and Romania. Despite of him not leaving Dada, Tristan Tzara took up Surrealism eventually (Masters 14).5 He developed his painting career as an apprentice in an engraving studio after completing his studies. He also served a s an illustrator and a draftsman in an advertising agency. Man Ray started taking drawing classes in Manhattan’s Ferrer Modern School where he learnt the world of photography and Alfred Stieglitz. The artist's creation by Pablo Picasso and Paul Cezanne tremendously inspired him. Dada and Surrealism encouraged Ray’s artistic work. Artistic ideas motivated him more than the artistic work itself. Despite his abstract paintings, Man Ray disregarded traditional superiority on photography. He used photography in documenting sculptures with no independent life and capturing activities by the avant-garde friends (Bardis 215).6 In 1915, his first solo exhibition happened at the Daniel Gallery.